And Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth: and
the heavens are the works of thine hands: Heb. 1:10
The following discussion questions and comments are organized by Section, Chapter,
and Sub-chapter. They are offered as suggestions and examples to assist during
presentations or discussion groups.
Incorporate the scriptures included in each section (as well as your own) into the
Beginning the Creation Journey
What issues do we encounter when reading Genesis 1 & 2 as an historical (literal)
.. Is there a conflict between a literal interpretation of Genesis 1 & 2 and
.. If genesis 1 through 11 is read as figurative, in whole or in part, how would
you (or could you) differentiate the figurative from the literal narrative?
Adam & Eve? the Garden of Eden? the Fall? Cain & Abel? the Flood?
the age of the patriarchs? or the Tower of Babel?
Is there a conflict between an old earth and Genesis 1 & 2?
If you were reading the Bible for the first time and were totally unfamiliar
with it's contents, how would you describe the intent of
Genesis 1 & 2? Not whether you believe it to be true or not, but the
intent of the writer?
Creation & Evolution: The Basics
order can be observed everywhere when we look. There is a spiritual
danger that might occur when familiarity with the natural world and the issues of
life cause us to forget the amazing order in all of creation.
Discuss the order that can be seen by direct observation of the
physical world, but also the order that exists through the actions and interactions
that occur with exact regularity.
Examples of order:
.. the perfect design and purpose of humans and all other living creatures.
.. actions: the migration of birds or the return of salmon to their birthplace.
.. Interactions: the
and other "rivers" in the oceans that help control
the earth's climate; the perfection and balance of the Solar System as the planets
and their moons orbit the sun; or the predictable tidal changes caused by the
gravitational force of the moon which cleanses the back bays and delivers
Ask each participant to give an example of design, planning, or order.
.. Could the example given be in its present state without intelligence
(purely by naturalism)?
.. Discuss the complexities of the examples
Hebrews 11:6 tells us that anyone who comes to Christ "must believe that
he exists". It is this faith that shows us to trust in the entire word of God.
Discuss the importance of faith as it pertains to the Genesis creation account. This
creation series will also demonstrate how the evolutionists must also rely on
"humanistic faith" when evidence is not availability.
Is the existence of God's word and our declaration that it is infallible an
admissible form of evidence? Why, or why not?
Hint: The Bible has been preserved over the centuries in many forms: the Dead Sea
Scrolls and other historical data that points to its accuracy.
(Sargon, King of Assyria; the "handwriting on the wall" and Belshazzar's offering to
make the interpreter the third in the kingdom; other archaeological
discoveries; most importantly, lives changed through God's word
(our personal testimony.)
Biblical Creation: A Brief Overview
Genesis 1 would appear to give an account of Creation in six literal days
.. Do you agree?
.. Why is it that Old Earth Creationists (OEC) struggle with a literal
interpretation of these verses?
Genesis 2 has been referred to by OEC's as a differing set of events than
those described in the first chapter. Rather than simply re-telling Genesis 1 in
a different sequence for emphasis, it attempts to be supportive of other old
earth theories such as the "Gap Theory", also referred to as
"Ruin and Reconstruction". OEC theories also state that billions of years
occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.
.. Does a reading of the verses 1:1-1:2 give any indication to the
average reader that there may be separate events?
If we rely on Genesis, the earth must be very young. Although it may not be
conclusively proven by science, what evidence is available for a
Does the concept of billions of years presented by the OEC view send a
confusing message, particularly to young people?
Setting aside radiometric dating methods and their accuracy for the moment:
How different does a ~7,000 year old earth look when comparing it to a 4.6b
year old earth?
Is it a fact that numbers of young people are leaving the faith once they are
out from under the direct influence of their parents? There are many cultural
factors that contribute to this disturbing trend. Discuss how evolution and
other cultural issues that conflict with God's word are influencing this
Do you agree that there has been a general cultural acceptance by Christian
young (and old) people of abortion, same-sex marriage, and evolution?
.. Abortion has diminished the sanctity of life.
.. Same-sex relationships have diminished the sanctity of marriage between a man
and a woman.
.. Evolution removes the need for God and makes the above two issues
Evolutionary Theory: A Brief Overview
Clara Moskowitz, LiveScience Senior Writer, references a parable of two
watchmakers to help us understand how the first cell was created.
.. Does the type of argument presented have any basis in science?
.. Analogies are often used to help the reader understand a concept. Is an
analogy, when used in science, a valid argument when presented without the
evidence or comparison that it is attempting to represent?
Evolution must rely solely on natural causes but often refers to the process
as having a degree of intelligence and planning. If we think of
the body as a series of interacting machines (the thinking of which is an analogy
to make a point), consider the following:
.. Can a machine(see Wikipedia definition of a machine)
be created without the input of design or purpose?
.. Are there limitations to the processes of nature or can time and chance lend
planning (intelligence) to cause machine-like structures to be created?
Consider the human heart beating at an average of 60-70 times per minute and
which is capable of running for 70 or more years. The total lifetime heartbeats
may exceed 2 billion, and many times without maintenance in healthy individuals.
If the heart is considered to be just one of the many machines in the
body, could this be a product of time and chance?
Darwin's publication, "On the Origin of Species" discusses variation
in species, time, and chance, but does not address the origin for the
initial creation of life. It was thought that science and fossil discoveries
might reveal the mystery of life. How important is the answer to evolution?
More details will be covered in the In6Days.org chapter
The Origin of Life.
Science Education and the Creation Evolution Controversy
Evolution is the prevailing theory being taught in most public
schools. Is this only what the world thinks of as simply the ongoing difference
of opinion between science and faith or is it a critical battle in
the cultural and spiritual war?
The Creation Model and the Evolution Model should be understood
in order to apply the available evidence and create a comparison between the
two. Creating specific models (or theories) assures that there is a
framework for discussion and we don't accept
a little of each, leading to an erroneous understanding of what is true.
An example is the acceptance of ideas that contradict each other: i.e the
Bible is without error, but science has proven an old earth and has validated the
evolutionary process. Truth is not relative and is not
"Proof" that the validity of evolution has been confirmed is often presented
as what can be called "subjective science." Confirmation also occurs by using
intimidating comments such as "creationists belong to the flat-earth
society", or by stating that "evolution has been proven" without
giving the facts. When reading the most recent proclamations, look for (and
discuss) statements that fall into the described categories.
The Scientific Method
Discuss the Scientific Method and its reliance on evidence to prove or
disprove a hypothesis.
Science must be, in all cases, objective. Do evolutionists make
claims that are based on a subjective analysis of the evidence?
Some might suggest that faith is also subjective. Do you agree? If not, how
would you explain your position?
The Origin and Complexity of Life
The two pillars of evolution, origin and complexity support the
entire theory. As discussed, there are arguments that attempt to
separate the origin of life from the actual process of evolution. This frees
evolutionary theory from having to prove how life began since it remains as a process
without supporting evidence. Discuss why these are important and what it means for
the entire theory.
Why are there so many believers in evolutionary theory when there is a lack
of evidence and common sense should cause at least a more critical look?
.. How would the educational system react and what would be the extent of the
repercussion if evolutionary theory were abandoned?
.. Could it be that the investment into the theory is more important to the
perspective than an interest in pursuing good science? Based upon such academic
to maintain evolution as the only possible answer to life's origin and complexity, is
it any surprise that the abandonment of the theory would not be allowed?
.. Is there any other field of scientific study that is protected from criticism or
even the presenting of contradictory evidence?
The Origin of Life
Discuss the cell theory and the implication that it has on the creation of
the first cell by natural causes.
How is the origin of the first cell addressed by Genesis 1 & 2?
The description and complexity of the human cell in this chapter should be
evidence enough to indicate that intelligence and a plan were necessary. Discuss the
interaction of the intricate machinery that occurs with a cell.
Discuss the comments by George Wald on abiogenesis/spontaneous generation.
.. Does he make a valid point when he states that the results of spontaneous
generation "can be seen" because "here we are"?
.. Dr. Wald rejects any other source for life when he states that the only
alternative to abiogenesis/spontaneous generation is a supernatural creation which
(he states) is unacceptable. Does good science
require that a new hypothesis should be developed if the current model fails?
The Complexity of Life
How does the concept of a "Tree" or a "Garden" highlight the difference between
Creation & Evolution?
How does our observation validate days 3, 5, & 6 of creation week?
and what occurred on each of these days?
A critical piece of evidence presented by Creationists is faith.
.. Should faith alone be presented as being sufficient to counter the claims of
evolution? Why or why not?
.. Is there a conflict between faith and science?
.. What do we observe?
Discuss Examining the available evidence for Creation
After reviewing the Taxonomic Classes and the
Phylogenetic Tree of Life, discuss thoughts on how evolution requires
faith to support the theory.
Keep the need for (both Christian and Evolutionary) faith in mind as
you exit to the 3 sub-chapters on Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, and
Punctuated Equilibrium (don't let the title of the last entry scare you.
Discuss Examining the available evidence for Evolution
Continue with The Complexity of Life after reviewing
sub-chapters 1 - 3 below
Darwinism: Natural Selection and Adaptation
Based upon his observations, Darwin concluded that all of life's organisms
occurred as a result of natural selection, adaptation, and
genetic drift. What other ingredients are required to effect change according to
evolutionists? A: time and chance
Discuss Micro and macro evolution. Do we see either one of those
principles at work today?
Darwin mention four difficulties with his theory that should be discussed. What
are they and would their presence or absence apply to micro evolution, macro
evolution, or both?
Neo-Darwinism: Darwinism + Mutation
One common thread in evolution is the dependence on eons of time and
random chance, acting along with micro and macro changes.
.. Are time and chance sufficient to create the DNA for even the most simple
.. After viewing the DNA Replication Animation and understanding the complex
machinery and their interactions, can it be assumed that a plan was
necessary from the very beginning of life?
.. Consider that the replication process includes proofreading and
error-checking mechanisms to ensure near-perfect fidelity.
.. Can we identify any complex structure created by man that became functional
without a plan or intelligence?
It is an established fact that genetic mutations do occur. The question remains
is whether they occur in a step-by-step coordinated sequence to achieve greater
.. If a motor vehicle agent were to blindfold you when taking the driving
test, how many attempts would have to occur before passing?
.. If each trip back for re-testing was at a different location, would previous
attempts accumulate in your knowledge base to assure that a passing grade will
eventually be achieved?
The molecular clock is cited by evolutionists as a key to understand how
order occurs from a random process. Notice that the emphasized words (bold)
in the quote from the Berkeley web site draw conclusions that seem to be standard
when making the case for evolution. Generalizations such as clock-like,
may, and reliable may sway an argument but are in no way conclusive or
.. As we read the various pronouncements regarding evolutionary discoveries, scan the
articles for similar words, including scientists believe and other statements
that are semi-committal (not based on evidence).
.. The possible existence of water on Mars and other planets is said to
possibility that life formed at some time in the past, or may be present
today. Even if water were found, it takes more than H2O to create life.
Also cited is the discovery of planets that appear to be orbiting their "parent"
star in what is called a habitable zone. The above are interesting thoughts
that are appropriate during the process of scientific discovery, but represent what
are only the fragmentary beginnings of a hypothesis.
Since the early days of Darwin's publication in 1859, evolutionists have assured
themselves that the missing transitional fossils buried all over the earth would be
found. Some stretches of imagination have created fossils that fit the evidence as
being "transitional." The sequential, step-by-step changes, however, are still
missing. P.Eq. would seem to be an effort to dismiss the need for transitional
fossils since the sorely needed evidence for evolution is missing.
.. Is it reasonable to continue on a quest for life's complexity when, after more
than 150 years, the mechanism for evolution is still elusive?
The Complexity of Life (continued)
Science is in a continuous state of discovery, often producing evidence that
challenges existing theories. Evolution is an example as is seen in
the 3 phases previously presented.
.. If the theory is cited by many in the scientific and educational communities as
being proven and not open to challenge, does that suggest that the
scientific method has been meticulously followed and further evidence is no
.. .... Is it fair to make a statement that evolution is
not open to challenge?
.. .... What outcry is heard from schools throughout the country when the question is
even raised that the Theory of Evolution has not been scientifically proven?
.. .... Which groups generally produce the strongest defense of evolution?
(A: NEA, Universities, government, etc.)
Should any scientific theory be closed to challenge, or is there a
tendency to lean towards "scientific correctness" when discussing evolution?
Micro & Macro Evolution
Statements have been made (paraphrased) by evolutionists that macro evolution is
an extension of micro evolution with greater time periods needed to provide the
changes necessary to create new species.
.. Do darwin's finches represent micro or macro evolution?
.. Can you give examples of macro evolution in effect today? Should we be able to
observe macro evolution in action?
Summarizing The Origin and Complexity of Life
The question is often raised regarding the teaching of creation side-by-side with
.. Discuss whether that is a good idea.
.. How would a creation curriculum be taught by someone who is a staunch
evolutionist? Can one be forced into teaching what they don't believe to be true and
.. Are there alternatives that can be proposed? (i.e. suggesting that origins cannot
be proven and present only the evidence for each)