7 But ask the animals, and they will teach you, or the birds in the sky, and they will tell you; 8 or speak to the earth, and it will teach you, or let the fish in the sea inform you. 9 Which of all these does not know that the hand of the LORD has done this? 10 In His hand is the life of every creature and the breath of all mankind. Job 12:7-10 NIV
Micro and Macro evolution play an important role in the Creation/Evolution debate. Micro changes occur within a species, as is readily seen in the variation within dogs or in Darwin's finches (discussed below). Macro changes, according to evolutionary teaching, are those that add to or reconfigure information within the genome to form a new species.
The concept of micro-evolution consists of processes identified as natural selection and adaptation which, separately or in combination, may cause changes within species through a loss of information in the genetic code.
Natural selection: The process in nature by which, according to Darwin's
theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive
and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to succeeding
generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.
Adaptation: An alteration or adjustment in structure or habits, often hereditary, by which a species or individual improves its condition in relationship to its environment.
Genetic drift Random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a small isolated population owing to chance rather than natural selection.
The Free Dictionary by Farlex, 2013
Darwin's Finches on the Galapagos (click image to enlarge)The principles of micro-evolution also guide the differentiation among large and small dogs, dogs with long and short hair, and many other examples that are apparent through observation. No matter the species, micro-evolution produces offspring that are only after their kind.
A rather primitive example of micro-evolution is given using the letters ABC to indicate genetic traits. The letters, signifying the traits for a species, can be rearranged in six combinations: ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, and CBA. The rearrangement produces variation within a kind but all would remain within the same species. Further differentiation may occur if one letter (B) was permanently dropped, reducing the number of combinations to: AC and CA. Note that there has now been a loss of information.
As an example, let the letters represent the hair of a bear with A being long and thick, B being moderate, and C being short and sparse. If the climate were to turn cold for a period of time, it might be assumed that more AB and BA bears might survive. The number of bears with the long, thick A trait might continue to reproduce while the less fit bears would be removed from the population. If the C gene was dormant, short and sparse haired bears would have a tendency to return over time if the climate returns to mild. Deepening cold, however, may also see a loss of the B gene, leaving only the A type bears. A letter (or trait) may lie dormant or may eventually be removed entirely from the gene pool. Once lost, a trait cannot be recovered (naturally) and a variant within the species has been eliminated.
As presented in the example, mutations do not produce new information but can produce variation and benefit for the species. The benefit in the bears example is the ability to survive in a climate that has become more hostile.
The concept of macro-evolution became necessary (for evolutionists) when it was determined that Darwinism alone (natural selection and adaptation) were not sufficient mechanisms to produce new species. Genetic mutation theories attempt to define how the code is modified to add information which, over time, creates a more complex species. Macro-evolution gave rise to what is presently called Neo-darwinism. Contrary to opinion, all scientists do not believe that macro-evolution occurs, particularly when the evidence is still missing.
From what I can see, microevolution is a fact; we see it all around us
regarding small changes within a species, and biologists demonstrate this procedure
in their labs on a daily basis. Hence, there is no argument regarding
microevolution. The core of the debate for me, therefore, is the extrapolation of
microevolution to macroevolution.
James M Tour Group, Evolution/Creation
James M. Tour, Ph.D., Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Material Sciences, Rice University.
Dr. Tour is a synthetic organic chemist
If creation of a new species were to occur, and if that species were to be a higher order organism, information would have, of necessity, been added to the genome. Using a variation of the previous bear example where A, B, and C represent traits, macro-evolution would require a method to create new genetic material that is not existent in a current species. Rather than having the genetic disposition for only ABC, the traits D, E, F,..., etc. must be added. Other than in textbook descriptions and computer modeling, a natural mechanism for adding well-planned, step-by-step, and beneficially related information to the genome does not exist.
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